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Why I dislike John of Gaunt….

Wycliffe on Trial, by Ford Madox Brown

As Ricardians, we know very well now, history can be twisted to suit. The matter of those strawberries and what happened next, for instance. I mean, the different versions are legion, even to the point of whether or not Thomas, Lord Stanley was ever present at all, let alone injured in a scrap and obliged to hide under a table. So delightful and worthy an image.

Anyway, while researching an earlier event (1377) I have come upon another did-he?/didn’t-he? scenario, this time involving the Duke of Lancaster/King of Castile, John of Gaunt. He from whom the Beauforts, the House of Lancaster and the Tudors are descended. I have never been very fond of him, not even after reading Anya Seton’s Katherine.

To me, at this 1377 point in history, he was a scheming heap of double standards, arrogance, blatant dishonesty and unworthiness. (Don’t hold back viscountessw, tell it how it is!) He was bungling, a lousy military commander, and quite determined to prevent the bloodline of the sole female offspring of his older brother, Lionel, from getting anywhere near the throne. Oh, no, dear John of Gaunt wasn’t having any of that! A right to the throne through a woman? Heaven forfend. Besides, Johnny-boy wanted the throne for himself and his own descendants, even though he was lower in the pecking order than Lionel had been. What a hypocrite! He himself was claiming the throne of Castile through his second wife! And he was even Duke of Lancaster in right of his first wife. Yet, suddenly, the throne of England had to be different. No female intrusions, pul-eeze!

Edward III was no better, because he claimed the throne of France through his mother, but he developed a very convenient memory when he was persuaded by Gaunt to sign an entail that excluded women from the succession. Mind you, I do wonder if Edward would have signed any such thing if he had not been put under extreme pressure by Gaunt. Edward was elderly at the time, perhaps in his dotage, and very, very tired. He was a mere shadow of the great king he had once been, and still bereft from the loss of his beloved queen, Philippa of Hainault. He was now becoming doddery, and was reliant for comfort on his disliked mistress, Alice Perrers, whom it suited Gaunt to support because she gave him more access to his father. Some might say Edward III was a sitting duck when it came to Gaunt’s overweening ambition.

Edward III, tomb effigy

In early 1377, Gaunt was strongly suspected of wanting the throne for himself, and old rumours were resurrected (presumably by his supporters) that called into question the legitimacy of Joan of Kent’s marriage to the Black Prince. And therefore also questioning the legitimacy of her son by the prince, the future Richard II. The Black Prince was not known by that name then, of course, he was Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales (or, as I’ve recently seen him identified, the Prince of England). Joan had a chequered history, it’s true, but she was lawfully married to the Black Prince.

Joan of Kent and her son, Richard II
Tomb of the Black Prince, Canterbury Cathedral

 

Well, the Pope said Joan was the Black Prince’s wife, so she had to be, right? I won’t go into the whys and wherefores of her story, just that legally, at this point in time, she was the wife/widow of the Black Prince, and her little son by him, Prince Richard, was trueborn. Anyway, two-faced Gaunt was prepared to secretly sponsor attacks her reputation one day…and the next rush off to seek her protection when a mob was (justifiably) out for his blood. If I’d been her, I’d have thrown him to the wolves!

I believe it was with all pips squeaking that Gaunt swore to protect his nephew, the boy who would become Richard II. Protect the child? Hmm. Back in those days the lives of youngsters were notoriously delicate and at risk, and I do not doubt that Gaunt’s fingers were crossed behind his back as he made his vow. With Richard out of the way, or childless—although waiting for such to prove the case was an unknown risk, and could mean a long period of impatient thumb-twiddling and foot-shuffling for Gaunt and his family—and Lionel’s Mortimer descendants forbidden the crown, there would be no argument when a Lancastrian backside was plonked upon the throne. Which, of course, happened in due course when Gaunt’s eldest son stole Richard II’s crown and probably murdered him.

Old St Paul’s Cathedral

Where is all this invective leading? Well, simply to a scene at St Paul’s, at the trial of Gaunt’s friend and protégé. Wycliffe/Wyclif (and other spellings) who was believed by many to be a heretic. Or verging on it. There was a confrontation between Gaunt and the man who had hauled Wycliffe before a Church trial, William Courtenay, Bishop of London, who was also a son of the Earl of Devon.

John of Gaunt and the Bishop of London arguing at St Paul’s.

The Church had been provoked by some of Gaunt’s activities, and did not like the rumours, so another rumour (or an old one resurrected) began to circulate, that Gaunt was a changeling. It was claimed that his mother, Philippa of Hainault, had confessed as much to William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, telling him to only let the truth be known if it seemed Gaunt was about to become King of England. Gaunt, needless to say, was livid, and deprived Wykeham of all manner of things. Mind you, in Gaunt’s place, I’d have been livid, too, but handsome is as handsome does, and (to use the language of the school playground) he started it! Courtenay and the bishops were intent upon getting at Gaunt through Wycliffe—punishing the duke himself being out of the question.

Wycliffe was escorted to the trial by Gaunt and the Earl Marshal, Henry Percy, who was a man capable of putting force before common sense. He angered the onlookers outside St Paul’s by clearing the way through them with much more strength than necessary. The trial opened with Courtenay telling Wycliffe to stand throughout the proceedings, and Gaunt declaring Wycliffe should be allowed to sit. Gaunt and Courtenay couldn’t bear the sight of each other, and the disagreement got out of hand. When Gaunt was heard to mutter something about dragging the bishop out by his hair, there was uproar that would to lead to the riots from which Gaunt had the brass neck to expect Joan of Kent to save him.

The above is the gist of the ‘facts’ as I have always understood them, but now, in a book entitled Lady of the Sun (a biography of Alice Perrers, by F George Kay) I find a much more colourful account of the flashpoint in St Paul’s:-

“…Gaunt lost his temper, knocked off the Bishop of London’s cap and started to drag him out of the way by his hair…”

Um, that’s slightly different from a mere heated exchange of words and a sotto voce threat. So, which is the right version? Something muttered? Or a violent laying-on of ducal hands?

F George Kay goes on to say that:-

“…The onlookers surged to the rescue of the Bishop. Gaunt and Percy [Earl Marshal and Gaunt’s sidekick, whose heavy-handedness had started the proceedings on the wrong foot] fled for their lives…and went by boat to Kennington. [Where Joan of Kent was residing with the little prince.]…)

Even with the missing words, this account implies that Gaunt and Percy fled from the scene of the trial, across the Thames and into Joan’s protection in one fell swoop. They knew she was popular with the people, and respected. The presence of the little prince was an added plus. One fell swoop? Not quite true. After the scene involving the Bishop of London’s hair, Gaunt and Percy went on their way in their own time, taking Wycliffe with them. The onlookers in the streets were shocked and angered by the quarrel, but were not, as yet, a rampaging mob.

It was the next day that things escalated and the rioting began, when London was informed that Percy had high-handedly imprisoned a man at the Marshalsea prison in Southwark for (apparently) no good reason. This imprisonment was the touch-paper.

When the mob went into action, Gaunt and Percy were sitting down to dine at the inn of a friend, a rich merchant named Sir John d’Ypres.

Small medieval dinner

The hors d’oevres had just been served (neat touch in the account of the eternally spiteful Walsingham) when a frightened messenger arrived to tell them the Marshalsea had been attacked and prisoners (or the prisoner) freed, Next, Percy’s house in Aldersgate had been ransacked as the mob looked for him (presumably with some dire punishment in mind). From Percy’s abode, the dissatisfied, frustrated, even angrier mob marched upon Gaunt’s fortress-like palace, the Savoy, broke in, and began another ransacking. Had either Gaunt or Percy been found, would they have been killed there and then? I don’t know, but it seems likely. What a difference to English history Gaunt’s early demise would have made!

Marshalsea Prison, Southwark, newly built in 1373
The house of Henry Percy, Earl Marshal, was somewhere near here.
The Savoy, Gaunt’s palace on the Thames

Anyway, on learning the awful news, Gaunt and Percy took to their highborn heels, bolted from d’Ypres’ house for the Thames, and then took a boat across the river to Kennington to throw themselves on her mercy. Joan was clearly nobler than them, because she took them in and defended them! Eventually—and no doubt very smugly—it was William Courtenay, Bishop of London, who calmed the mob and dispersed them. And he still had his hair!

Kennington Palace, but later than 14th century

So, here is another famous occasion for which the accounts are mixed. Maybe February 1377 isn’t of as much interest to Ricardians as anything that went on between 1483 and 1485, but I find it fascinating that such different slants can be extracted from brief accounts. Historians then adopt their preferred version, and claim it as the truth.

Oh, and F George Kay doesn’t say Gaunt allowed the rumours about Joan’s marriage to be spread, he says that Gaunt stood up in Parliament and suggested the succession should be discussed! Parliament was shocked. What was there to discuss? Until then they’d all been satisfied that the succession would go to Prince Richard. Gaunt was clearly reminding them all about the doubts concerning the Black Prince’s marriage. Did Gaunt really make such a suggestion? Would he do it? Would he stand there and publicly dig up doubts and questions about the marriage of the heir to the throne, and the legitimacy of the next king? He was already very unpopular, and widely suspected of having designs on the throne. Well, I am perhaps not the best person to ask. I’m not exactly unbiased! But then, nor was Gaunt. And Parliament’s response was to invite the prince to come before them, so they could acknowledge him and see that all his father’s estates, etc. were bestowed upon him forthwith. This was, perhaps, not what Gaunt had planned. Certainly it was a very public a rejection of any designs and ambitions he nurtured for himself.

It will by now be very clear that I have no time for John of Gaunt. Maybe he became a steadying influence in later years, but at the time of which I now write, he was a dangerously ambitious, scheming magnate who was prepared to do whatever it took to get his own way. He didn’t give a fig who he hurt, or about family loyalty—except when it suited, and especially when it came to sucking up to and manipulating his elderly, worn-out father, Edward III. He ‘persuaded’ Edward to disinherit his son Lionel of Clarence’s daughter, and her son (Roger Mortimer, the future Earl of March) from the succession, in order to insert himself in the nicely cleared slot. And he wasn’t above permitting his supporters to spread whispers about the Black Prince’s marriage and the legitimacy of the future Richard II.

If you wonder what did happen with the succession, read Appendix Two of Ian Mortimer’s The Fears of Henry IV, which explores and explains it all in great detail. Throughout Richard’s reign, Gaunt endeavoured to persuade him to name Gaunt’s son, Henry, as heir presumptive. Richard resisted, and seemed to regard the Earl of March’s son as heir. Richard made an entail of his own, superseding that of his grandfather, Edward III. In the end, of course, the entails were useless, because Gaunt’s son and heir usurped the crown and did away with Richard. Job done. Except that Gaunt never knew how successful his line finally became, because he died before Richard, and thus before Henry’s Lancastrian backside graced the throne.

I don’t just dislike Gaunt, I loathe him! His machinations were the root cause of the bloody Wars of the Roses. But I know that he has many supporters, and they will not agree with anything I’ve said. They will probably regard me as being guilty of the very things I’ve commented on: fake news and twisted facts!

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18 thoughts on “Why I dislike John of Gaunt….

  1. An excellent post! It always struck me that he accused others of being flawed with his very own weaknesses.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I’m with you on this, Countess! I have no time for Gaunt, either – and I have read precious little about him other than Anya Seton’s novel, long ago. His legitimate son usurped and murdered Richard II and his Beaufort bastards caused no end of trouble and eventually usurped and murdered another Richard. No, I don’t like Gaunt or his progeny.

    Liked by 3 people

  3. Not a nice man or a pleasant era, for anyone! Indeed, history would have been very different, but someone else would have wriggled out of the woodwork. I think the real problem is that Edward III had too many sons!

    Liked by 1 person

  4. McArthur, Richard P. on said:

    I have never read that the supposed entail cutting Mortimer out was ever presented to anybody officially. In fact, I have my doubts about its existence.
    At least Henry IV depended on female succession-through his mother Blanche of Lancaster, asserting-falsely-that her ancestor Edmund Crouchback, a son of Henry III, was born before Edward I.
    The Plantagenets depended on descent through Matilda, daughter of Henry I.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. jay on said:

    a bit of a dilemma for ricardians – without the beauforts – no joan beaufort-no cicely neville and therefore no richard!?

    Like

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  9. johnofgaunt1340 on said:

    Dear Viscountess, I really do appreciate a lot oh your writing and like your style and humour too. This time though, I have to step in defending Gaunt, although he doesnt need any defense from anyone I am sure. I have studied his life and politics for almost 12 years now, have read all biographies and studied in detail his policies in the 70, 80, and 90ies – of course in the 14th century. I am not going down the route of arguing against many points you made, as always things have two sides. Still I ask myself, if we talk about the same historical person. Do you talk about the man, who was as loyal as possible at all to his older brother Edward? Who saved many political situations that Edward had messed up in Bordeaux with french nobles and in Spain as well? Someone, who had to clear up the mess in the mid70s, after his father Ed3 was pretty much incapable of holding the country together and his brother Edward of Woodstock had been sick for years as well? Someone who became the scapegoat for English foreign policy but in the end NEVER attempted to take the crown? He might have longed for it but he never did it. Richard II attempted 5 times to murder him, advised by his young comrades, who were fed up with boring advices of how to keep peace with France. You might argue, Gaunt was not was a good military leader, but he was one of the most intelligent statesmen, that the medieval world had. Besides that, he encouraged his daughters at a very young age to learn how to read and write, had the largest art collection of early Asian glass and spoke 5 languages. Dont say, you loathe him. Read Anthony Goodmans biography, Sidney Armitage Smith and the comments from contemporary nobles in France, Spain and Scotland. Study his patronage of Wycliffe, Chaucer and please, his lifelong friendship with Joan of Kent, starting when she was still married with Thomas Holland. Read, how she entrusted him with the burial of her older son Edward in Bordeaux, while she had to return with the Black Prince to England him being so sick, he could hardly walk . It was an almost lifelong bond that started, while Gaunt was still 13 years old. If you then still loathe him, so be it. But dont slander him , like Richard III is being slandered, from quoting Walsingham without looking at all aspects of Gaunts life. I am a Ricardian too and have done lots of promoting Richard’s time and character, because I truly believe, history has done him unjust. We all know why….
    ” Loathe” is a big word for someone, who has spend his whole life gritting his teeth for not taking the crown , still supporting a nephew who was pretty much a nightmare….let’s just stay open minded

    Liked by 1 person

    • viscountessw on said:

      Hello johnofgaunt1340. Very well, so Gaunt didn’t go after the throne in fact, but that doesn’t mean he had no such plans, only that he didn’t implement them. And it seems to me that the entail did exist, which involved a lot of hypocrisy and Lancastrian ambition. Why should the Mortimer line be excluded simply because Lionel of Clarence had a daughter instead of a son? There they were, Edward III and John of Gaunt, going after the crowns of other countries because of a female blood link. Do I think Monseigneur d’Espagne would have been satisfied not to become Monseigneur d’Angleterre as well? No. I don’t profess to know why he didn’t pursue this ultimate goal, only that he didn’t, but he certainly paved the way for his son.

      And for you to say he “spent his whole life gritting his teeth for not taking the crown” implies to me that you feel it was definitely what he really wanted to do. And if that is true about him, then it also implies that he was prepared to trample on the rights of senior lines. He had no right to the throne, he was down the pecking order, whether he liked it or not, so he worked on his father (who was in his dotage) to exclude Lionel’s line.

      Be honest. If Gaunt was so noble and the sole reason the country stayed together, why was he so loathed by the people? Why couldn’t they wait to destroy the Savoy? I don’t think the noble Duke of Lancaster was everything you say, but I concede your dislike of the word “loathe”. OK, so I’ll limit it to “dislike”.

      Like

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  11. Janice P Robinson on said:

    I like John of Gaunt because he was sexy and romantic in “Katherine” by Anya Seton. And you can’t tell me not to like him. Nyeeah.

    Like

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