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Archive for the tag “Tyburn”

Schrodinger’s royal marriages?

Anne Boleyn and then Katherine Howard thought they had married Henry VIII. Then he annulled them both, as he did with his first and fourth weddings, such that they were deemed to have been invalid from the start. However, he had these second and fifth Queens executed for treason in that they committed adultery whilst married to him, even whilst maintaining that they were not. Similarly, Henry absolutely insisted that the dispensation he obtained in made his first ceremony with Catalina de Aragon (above right) completely valid.

Perhaps Henry picked up this habit from his father who insisted that the rebel he sent to Tyburn in 1499 was guilty of treason, which could only apply if he was an English subject, whilst calling him “Perkin Warbeck” from the Low Countries?

Erwin Schrodinger (below left) would, of course understand perfectly. “My cat is alive and dead”. “Anne Boleyn and I were validly married and were not.” “”Perkin” was an English subject and a foreigner.

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A genealogical illustration …

… of Lewis’ The Survival of the Princes in the Tower. Here is the pedigree, incorporating the “Simnel” and “Warbeck” hypotheses but also Jack Leslau’s theory involving More and Hans Holbein’s painting.

A request for authenticity

Today in 1606, the last of the “Gunpowder Plotters”, including Guido Fawkes, were executed at Tyburn. Some had been put to death the previous day whilst others, including Robert Catesby, were shot at Holbeche House , resisting arrest, soon after the plot was discovered.
All of the executions were carried out by drawing, hanging and quartering yet the commemorations each November feature an effigy of Fawkes being burned.
The other advantages would be that the ceremony would still be practical in wet weather, that the effigy could be repaired and recycled for the following year and that small mammals such as hedgehogs would not be endangered.

Sir Roger of Clarendon

It is not widely know that Richard II had a half-brother on his father’s side. This was Sir Roger of Clarendon, son of Edward of Woodstock ‘the Black Prince’ by one Edith de Willesford.

Roger was almost certainly older than Richard II. In 1372 he received an annuity from Edward III of £100. He was also married, but unfortunately his wife died in 1386, and there were no children. He does not appear to have married again.

Roger was left a silk bed in his father’s will. After the accession of Richard II, he became a Knight of the King’s Chamber. However, he does not appear to have attracted the attention of the King’s enemies in the upheavals of 1386-1388, so perhaps he was seen as a moderate, or was not regarded as a threat.

In 1398 a duel with another knight led to Roger being imprisoned. He obtained bail, but ran off when his opponent subsequently died, presumably because he thought he might be convicted of murder. This train of thought suggests he was not particularly close to Richard II, because a man in his position might reasonably expect a royal pardon for practically anything.

In 1402 he was arrested, accused of plotting against Henry IV. 1402 was a difficult year for Henry. Not only was the Glyndwr rising in full swing in Wales, but Edmund Mortimer had defected to the rebels. Henry even felt obliged to temporarily imprison a number of ladies on suspicion of treason – a rare event that hints at paranoia. Roger was linked to a conspiracy of certain friars to restore Richard II, who was still supposed to be alive in Scotland. His crime may have been nothing more than to believe his half-brother was alive and broadcast his opinion.

Roger was executed at Tyburn. So almost certainly by hanging, and quite possibly by the full sentence of hanging, drawing and quartering.

Sources:

Plantagenesta

The Lion Rampant

History of England Under Henry IV, James Hamilton Wylie.

The Royal Household and the King’s Affinity 1360-1413, Chris Given-Wilson.

What “Perkin” (actually) said

Most of us are familiar with the story of “Perkin Warbeck” and the letters he wrote back to the Low Countries. Depending on his identity, his parents hailed from there if he was an impostor or his aunt was Dowager Duchess of Burgundy if he was Richard of Shrewsbury, the former Duke of York and hitherto illegitimate son of Edward IV. In the decade leading up to his execution in autumn 1499, he had travelled widely, married Lady Katherine Gordon (James IV’s cousin), issued a proclamation of his rights and written various other letters. It seems to be a mantra of the Cairo dwellers, or have they reached Alexandria yet, that this proclamation refers to his kidnap and his brother’s (the erstwhile Edward V) death at the hands of “a certain lord”, an uncle who it later names as Richard III.

The most obvious question mark over this document is that later identification. Even if you assume that it was written whilst he was an untortured free man, you assume that he wasn’t portraying his brother Edward as dead for some complex reason or other (by-passing or protecting him) and you forget that Edward IV’s sons had many uncles, by birth or marriage, including Buckingham and St. Leger , alive in summer 1483, in which language was it written? Latin, which is quite likely, has separate words (patruus and avunculus respectively) for paternal and maternal uncles, which would help here. In Cairo, however, they assure us that the document is not in Latin and that “Perkin”‘s own hand names Richard III, “proving” that it is bad news for Richard whether “Perkin” is Shrewsbury or not.

Well, here is the proclamation, transcribed by Sir Robert Cotton:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3SMsAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA387&lpg=PA387&dq=perkin+warbeck%27s+proclamation&source=bl&ots=-MkrldUg5x&sig=AJMbfXCtJjwivy42KfIlsmZQ3pA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MV7yVLvMCISY7gaa2YD4Dw&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=perkin%20warbeck%27s%20proclamation&f=false
You will note that “Perkin”‘s own words are clearly separate whilst his letter to Isabel of Castile is indeed in Latin. You will also note that John Speed, in his 1610 “Historie of Great Britain” compiled a century after Tyburn 1499, has appended an imaginary speech to James IV and the specific accusation of Richard III appears only in this later addition. You will also note that Bacon has appended even more. You will remember that this is the same John Speed (c.1552-1629) who confused Leicester’s Greyfriars with the Blackfriars, gaining the sobriquet “the Colourblind Cartographer”:
http://www.abebooks.co.uk/book-search/author/speed-john-1552-1629/
Speed and Bacon were, of course, writing for an early Stuart interest.

In other words, nowhere does “Perkin” name the “certain lord” who features in his convenient tale. QED.

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