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Does this later case explain Henry Pole the Younger’s fate?

In the years from 1518, before he left England again in 1536, Reginald Pole occupied a number of ecclesiastical ranks, including that of Dean of Exeter. During the early 1530s, just as Henry VIII sought his first annulment, Eustace Chapuys was pressing Reginald to marry Princess Mary, the cousin he eventually served from Lambeth Palace. By the end of 1536, Reginald was created a Cardinal and was under holy orders, whether he had been earlier or not. The plot that he, together with his brothers Henry Lord Montagu and Sir Geoffrey, is supposed to have launched against Henry VIII needed a credible marital candidate or two for Mary. This, as we have pointed out before, meant Henry Pole the Younger, Montagu’s son, and Edward Courtenay, son of the Marquis of Exeter. Either or both of these teenage boys could have been viewed, by Henry VIII, as threats so both were consigned to the Tower. Pole was never seen after 1542, whilst Courtenay was only released in 1553.

Reginald Pole, as a Cardinal, was bound by clerical celibacy but could this be reversed? Not if this later case is anything to go by, although Phillip II, Mary’s eventual husband and Catherine of Aragon’s great-nephew, had a hand in it: Sebastian, the young King of Portugal died without issue at the 1578 battle of Alcacer Quibir and only his great-uncle Henry, Manuel of Beja’s son, remained from the legitimate House of Aviz, that almost provided spouses for Richard III and Elizabeth of York in the previous century. Henry, however was a Cardinal and Gregory XIII, at Phillip’s behest, would not release him from his vows. Henry ruled alone for nearly a year and a half before dying on his 68th birthday. The strongest claimant to succeed him was … Phillip II, who ruled Portugal, followed by his son and grandson, for a total of sixty years, although Antonio, a Prior and Sebastian’s illegitimate cousin, tried to reign.

This explains the various claimants, including the House of Braganza, which supplied Charles II‘s wife.

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The other talents of Sir Clements Markham

To historians, Ricardians in particular, Clements Markham is best known as the writer who built on the earlier research of Horace Walpole and others to rehabilitate the last Plantagenet during the Edwardian era. In this capacity, his rivalry with James Gairdner is legendary and he wrote a biography of Edward VI, however Markham was a man of many more talents.

His main career was as a geographer and explorer. He served in the Royal Navy and helped to search for Sir John Franklin, who had disappeared on an Arctic expedition, albeit to no avail. He then worked for the Inland Revenue and India Office before becoming geographer to Sir Robert Napier in Abyssinia. By now he was Honorary Secretary of the Royal Geographic Society, a post he occupied for a quarter of a century and became its President after a five-year sabbatical. In these roles, he became a patron of Robert Scott and supported him far more than he did Ernest Shackleton, becoming godfather to Sir Peter Scott, who became a naturalist after his father’s early death.

It is, presumably, through his experience as an explorer that Markham became a historian. As can be seen above right, he translated the life of Lazarillo de Tormes (above left) and wrote about many other explorers whilst reporting on his own voyages to the Arctic, the Antarctic, South America and Africa. Markham (below left) eventually wrote biographies of Edward VI and Richard III and died in 1916, in a house fire whilst trying to read by candlelight.

“If I can see further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants” – Sir Isaac Newton.

MORE WORK ON ANCIENT DNA

Last year,  ancient DNA was in the headlines  when it was determined  the ‘Beaker People’ who arrived in Britain c 4500 years ago, genetically replaced 90% of the previous population. At that time, studies were saying that the ‘Steppe Ancestry’ found in these people was not found in the Beaker population of Spain, long thought to be the earliest area of  the ‘Beaker package’ and probably the dispersal area into the British Isles. So this changed what seemed to be an emerging picture of a more western origin, as well as the possible source of the highly dominant Y-DNA R1b in these areas.

However, a newer more region specific study has shown that the same Steppe ancestry is indeed found in the Spanish Beaker population, and also that they became genetically dominant in that region in a relatively short time, exactly as happened in Britain. (In other areas, such as central Europe, they became more blended into the earlier populations.)

In fact, the new story is eerily familiar and leads back to what was suspected–that the west Atlantic coast was a corridor for much trade and migration, and perhaps the dispersal of early Proto-Celtic languages. The main difference is that the Beaker culture is now looking to have arisen in central Europe with the blending of Steppe migrants and other local groups, and then spread out in several directions, including Spain, with arrival in Britain coming from BOTH from the Low Countries and Germany and from the western Atlantic seaboard.

The study of DNA in both ancient and medieval examples is certain throwing up many surprises; new work on the remains from the Tudor ‘Mary Rose’  shipwreck also showed that amongst the sailors were several North Africans and a Spaniard.

The stories coded within our genes from time immemorial will eventually be told.

 

ANCIENT SPANISH DNA

 

Beaker Europe

beaker

A lost “Tudor” treasure found in Spain….

Henry VIII - lost tapestry found in Spain

A lost tapestry commissioned by Henry VIII has been found in Spain. It is a magnificent treasure, restored from anonymity. How I wish something similar could be found concerning Richard III, preferably something that would clear his name! Maybe there is a dark, dark cellar, at the bottom of dark, dark stairs, and a dark, dark passage leading to a dark, dark room. And there, in the corner of the dark, dark room, is a dark, dark chest. And inside, Richard’s lost papers, including his will. Oh, wouldn’t it be amazing? But in the meantime, we have Henry VIII’s lost tapestry…

To read about this priceless treasure, click here.

A new interpretation of 1580s events

We all know that Mary Stuart was beheaded at Fotheringhay on 8 February 1587 and that the Spanish Armada sailed to facilitate a Catholic invasion of England in the following year, leaving Lisbon on 28 May and fighting naval battles in late July, at Plymouth and Portland. The traditional view is that Mary Stuart’s execution and Elizabeth I’s support for the revolt in the Spanish Netherlands provoked Phillip II’s wrath.

It is quite possible that this was not the case and that Phillip had

sought to overthrow his quondam sister-in-law much earlier. Mary, as the daughter of Marie de Guise and widow of Francis II was the French-backed Catholic candidate for the English throne and Franco-Spanish rivalry ensured that Phillip, great nephew of Catherine of Aragon and a Lancastrian descendant proper+, would not act in concert with any of her plots; however her death cleared the way for him, especially as the French Wars of Religion were still to resolve themselves.

We can compare this with the England of 1685-8, as William of Orange allowed the Duke of Monmouth to attempt an invasion first and only asserted his stronger semi-marital claim against James VII/II afterwards. In 1483-5, by contrast, the Duke of Buckingham was legitimately descended from Edward III when he rebelled against Richard III, only for Henry “Tudor”, of dubious lineage, to benefit.

h/t Jeanne Griffin

+ See The Wars of The Roses, Ashdown-Hill, part 4.

Where did the Tudors come from….?

HENRY AND MODEL OF OLD LONDON BRIDGE

For those of us who may wish to know where the name Tudor comes from, here’s a thorough explanation.

 

Some notes on Henry Pole the Younger

These are taken from Pierce’s biography of his paternal grandmother Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, we have some sinister clues to his fate. Our witness is Charles de Marillac, French ambassador from 1538-43, whose correspondence with Francois I is copiously quoted in the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.

de Marillac wrote on 1 July 1540 that “Edward Courtney is more at large than he was and has a preceptor to teach him lessons, a thing that is not done towards the little nephew of Cardinal Pole, who is poorly and strictly kept and not desired to know anything” (L&P XVI, no.1011)

In June 1541, shortly after the Countess’s execution, her cousin Lord Leonard Gray, son of Eleanor St. John and Thomas Marquess of Dorset, was beheaded “for aiding and abetting the escape of his nephew Gerald, 11th Earl of Kildare. It was with Reginald, in exile, that Kildare found refuge and the Cardinal arranged his education and settled an annuity of 300 crowns upon him.” (B. Fitzgerald The Geraldines, an experiment in Irish Government).
Among the accusations against Grey was that he employed the services of a page who had been in Lord Montague’s service for 4 or 5 years and used him as a messenger in his treasonous intrigues. Moreover in 1538, as deputy of Ireland, he reputedly left all the king’s artillery in Galway ready to put at the disposal of the Pope of the Spaniards should they invade “as a report that Cardinal Pole, with an army would land about that time” (L&P XV no.830, pp.398-9; L&P XVI no.304 (iii)).

The last payment was made for Pole’s diet some time in 1542 (L&P XVIII no.880 f.436).

Richard III and Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar aka ‘El Cid’

To continue my series of posts about Richard’s notable genealogical connections, my latest discovery is that he was directly descended from Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar – El Cid!

Statue of El Cid

Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar – El Cid

This time the connection is through his mother’s line and you can see the tree below (in two parts) with red dots showing the direct line of ancestors leading to El Cid.

Picture of Richard III family tree 1

Picture of Richard III family tree 2

But who was El Cid?

In an animated version of his story, he is described as: ‘A man who becomes a knight, a knight who becomes a hero, a hero who becomes a legend!’ But what is fact and what fiction? He is seen as the National Hero of Spain, a heroic warrior who fought to drive the Moors (Muslims) out of Spain. However, he actually fought both against and for the Moors.

There are many published versions of his life and some fictional incidents have passed into history as fact – something he shares with Richard. So, I have read a book  (El Cid: The Making of a Legend by MJ Trow) which analyses all the written records of his life in chronological order and each incident is assessed using likelihood and common sense. Like Richard, contemporary reports are few and the stories became more and more elaborate as time goes on, like a snowball gathering snow. So, let’s start from the beginning.

Rodrigo was born in Vivar, near Burgos, in Spain in about 1043. His family was wealthy and connected to the King, Ferdinand I, being court officials, although they weren’t major players.

Photo of staue of El Cid riding Babieca, his war horse

Statue of El Cid riding Babieca

One legend associated with Rodrigo is about his horse, Babieca. It is said he was offered the pick of an Andalusian herd of horses by his godfather as a coming of age gift and his choice was considered a weak one, causing his godfather to cry: ‘Babieca!’ which means ‘idiot’. However, there are other theories such as that the horse was a gift from a barbarian and the name came from that. Whatever the truth, Babieca certainly became a formidable warhorse and has his own tomb in the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña, where Rodrigo himself was first buried.

Picture of swords - colada is number 8

‘Colada’ is no. 8

Like the legendary King Arthur, El Cid also had a special sword – in fact more than one. These swords were named ‘Colada’ and ‘Tizona’ and one (possibly actually ‘Colada’ but labelled ‘Tizona’) still survives and is displayed in the Museum of Burgos. In 1999 it was tested and confirmed to be made in the eleventh century in Moorish Cordoba and contained Damascus steel (which is made by a special process that is no longer known today). It is 36.8 in long and weighs 2.5 lb and the hilt is a later edition as is also the inscription which reads:

‘Yo soy la Tizona [que] fue hecha en la era de mil e quarenta’ (I am the Tizona, who was made in the year 1040). And on the reverse side:

‘Ave Maria gratia plena; dominus mecum [sic]’ (Hail Mary, full of grace; the Lord be with me).

Sword 'Tizona' on display in Madrid before 2007

‘Tizona’ on display in Madird before 2007

Rodrigo was the sworn man of Sancho, one of Ferdinand’s three sons, the others being Alfonso and Garcia. As a young man, in 1057, he fought for Sancho against the Moorish stronghold of Zaragoza, making its emir, Al-Muqtadir, one of Sancho’s vassals. However, in 1063, he also fought on Al-Muqtadir’s side against Ferdinand’s half-brother, Ramiro I of Aragon, and his army, who were besieging Zaragoza. Ramiro was killed and the Aragonese army routed and it was rumoured that Rodrigo fought and beat an Aragonese knight in single combat, thereby winning the title Campeador – which translates roughly as ‘Champion’. He is referred to as such in this sixteenth century chronicle of his life.

Page of Chronicle of El Cid

Translation: Chronicle of the very brave knight, El Cid, Rodrigo Diaz, Champion.

Sancho was assassinated in 1072, probably by his brother Alfonso, who wanted to take over Sancho’s lands, and Rodrigo transferred his allegiance to him. The legend has it that he forced Alonso to swear on the Bible in public that he had had nothing to do with Sancho’s murder but, although this is possible, there is no proof of the incident. It is certainly true that the relationship between Rodrigo and Alfonso was difficult and twice Alfonso exiled Rodrigo. The reasons are disputed, but one possibility is because of rumours spread about him by rivals.

In the first of these exiles, in 1080, he offered his services to other rulers in Spain (which then consisted of many small kingdoms), and in 1081, El Cid was accepted by the Moorish king of Zaragoza, Yusuf al-Mu’taman ibn Hud, and served both him and his successor, Al-Mustain II. It was during this period that he was given the title El Cid (The Lord or Master – probably from the Arabic ‘Al-Sayyid’) and served as a successful general of the predominantly Moorish armies, at times against Alfonso.

He became such a formidable foe that, around 1087, Alfonso recalled him for a short time but, when he was exiled for a second time, Rodrigo seems to have decided not to rely on Alfonso’s goodwill but make his own fortune.

Signature of El Cid

El Cid’s signature: ‘ego ruderico’ (I, Rodrigo)

Rodrigo had married Jimena in 1075 and another legend has arisen about their relationship, namely that he had killed her father in one of his first battles and that their relationship was therefore understandably strained. However, again there is no evidence that this is true.

Rodrigo eventually invaded and occupied Valencia, which he conquered by gradually getting control of surrounding towns and lands and finally gained by siege with a combined Christian and Moorish army. He became Valencia’s ruler in 1094, to all intents and purposes a king there. The city was both Christian and Muslim, and both Moors and Christians served in the army and as administrators.

However, after living there peacefully with his wife, Jimena, for about five years, the Almoravids, (Berbers originally from North Africa), besieged Valencia to try to take it back and El Cid died on June 10th 1099, probably from the effects of deprivation and starvation because of the siege.

This belies the well-known film version of his story starring Charlton Heston and Sophia Loren which has a very dramatic scene: after Rodrigo’s death from a battle wound, El Cid’s wife, Jimena dresses him in his armour and mounts him on his famous horse, Babieca, (tied on to prevent him falling off). She sends him off into battle again to inspire his men, who are unaware he has died. A vivid image, but a false one. However, there is a plausible source for this myth, the probably true story that he was buried sitting upright on his throne. His tomb was desecrated during a later attack on the town and some of his bones were lost, but the remains which were saved were reburied in Burgos Cathedral, where they still rest to this day.

Tomb of El Cid and his wife Jimena

Tomb of El Cid and Jimena

It is clear that he was a courageous warrior and intelligent tactician. Before battle, Rodrigo often ordered that classical Roman works on military themes should be read aloud to him and his soldiers, both for entertainment and inspiration. He also utilised brainstorming sessions to discuss tactics and accepted or considered suggestions and ideas from his men. However, he was also ruthless at times and merciful at others. He often used unexpected strategies, utilising what modern tacticians would describe as ‘psychological warfare’ — terror tactics, surprise attacks and distractions for example. He is known to have executed a man by having him buried up to his armpits and then burned alive. In contrast, having captured one of his greatest enemies, Count García Ordóñez, he held him for three days and then let him go.

He probably gained his reputation as a great warrior because he was undefeated in battle (and he fought many, many battles over the years). Regarding one of them, the Historia Roderici tells us ‘… it happened that Rodrigo Diaz fought alone with fifteen enemy soldiers; seven of them were in mail; one of these he killed, two he wounded and unhorsed and the remainder he put to flight by his spirited courage.

To sum up, like Richard, Rodrigo is seen as the ultimate chivalric hero, almost a saint, by some (he was in fact proposed for canonisation by one of his descendants, Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza) and an unscrupulous, violent chancer, only out for his own ends, by others. Fortunately for Rodrigo, it is the heroic persona that has become the accepted legend, whereas for Richard it is the evil one. Doubtless, for both, the truth is somewhere in between these two extremes.

 

 

 

Image credits:

El Cid by Stan Sheb via Creative Commons licence.

Babieca statue by CarlosVdeHabsburgo (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons.

Colada by Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon 6. Auflage 1905 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Tizona image by Infinauta (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Chronicle in public domain.

Signature by Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1050-1099) Created in vector format by P4K1T0 (File:Firma del Cid.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Tomb by Zarateman (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons.

This blog is brought to you …

… by a thing called the internet. The internet may only have been invented by (Sir) Tim Berners-Lee (left) during the eighties but it has a much older patron saint – the seventh century Archbishop of Seville, Isidore.

 

St. Isidore (right), who died in 636, was chosen because he wrote the Etymologiae, an early encyclopedia that unified several classical works that would otherwise have been lost to us.

So, if you are deeply religious and your connection drops out, instead of cursing, you know exactly what to do …

A truncated reign and a truncated monarch

Right at the start of this series, Helen Castor (left) takes a black marker pen and illustrates the cause of the 1553 crisis on a large sheet of paper. Beginning with Henry VII, very few of his legitimate male descendants were alive at the start of that year – eliminating the obvious illegitimate cases, we have Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, aged seven (a Catholic in Scotland) and Edward VI, aged fifteen, whose health took a turn for the worse at that time. There were, however, nine healthy legitimate female descendants: Lady Margaret Douglas, Mary Stewart who was Lady Margaret’s niece of ten and already crowned in Scotland (but living as a Queen consort in France), Henry VIII’s two bastardised, but included by law, daughters Mary and Elizabeth, Lady Frances Grey (nee’ Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk in suo jure) and her three daughters Jane, Catherine and Mary together with Frances’ niece Lady Margaret Clifford. In short, the “Tudor” male line was on the propinquity of its termination, although a medical explanation for this was not given.

In the first programme, Castor showed how Edward’s “devise for my succession” developed during that fateful year. First, he hopes that one of the Protestant Grey sisters will have a male heir to succeed him with Frances as the new King’s grandmother and Regent. Then his illness accelerated and there are crossings out on the devise, such that “the Lady Jane’s heires male” becomes “the Lady Jane AND HER heires male”, in the hope that he will live long enough for Parliament to enact this document and supersede Henry VIII’s own legislation, which named the Catholic Mary as heir after Edward, although the Greys would be preferred to the Stewarts. On the left is the “Streatham Portrait“, previously thought to have been of Jane, but not commissioned until half a century later.

During the first half of 1553, Lady Jane was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, son of the Duke of Northumberland who was Lord Protector at the time. Lady Catherine Grey also married, as did Guildford’s sisters, one to Lord Henry Hastings, later Earl of Huntingdon. In the event, fate overtook Edward’s plans and his devise, as letters patent, had no legal status at his death on 6 July. Darnley’s claim as the last “Tudor” male was to be ignored and England was to have a Queen Regent, as Northumberland took his son and new daughter-in-law from Bradgate in Leicestershire, via Sion House to the Royal Apartments in the Tower for her reign to be proclaimed on 10 July, although Jane took the fateful decision that her husband was to be created Duke of Clarence and not King.

In the second programme, Castor explains how the Privy Council erred by sending Northumberland to East Anglia to arrest Mary, removing the realm’s best military commander from the capital, where the professional soldiers and their weapons were. Mary moved from Kenninghall in Norfolk to Framlingham Castle to strengthen her position and gathered support from those who still adhered to her Catholic faith and who had “known” her from afar for her whole life. There was to be no arrest of Mary, nor was there to be a pitched battle as Henry VIII’s first-born child outmanoeuvred Northumberland, at his Cambridge base, in order to march upon London.

The third episode begins with a naval mutiny ensuring that Mary had some artillery to enforce her claimand the Privy Council officially dethroning Jane. Mary took the Tower, Jane, Guildford and their fathers became prisoners and Mary was proclaimed. For Jane, there could be no return to her earlier life at Bradgate. Except for Northumberland, there was to be no trial until November and even then Jane, Guildford and Suffolk had their sentences of death suspended – until Thomas Wyatt rebelled in the Protestant interest in mid-January, in protest at Mary’s plans to marry Phillip II. Mary then signed the three death warrants, the teenage couple went to the block on February 12th and Jane’s father eleven days later. Cranmer, who had been part of her Privy Council, was attainted and deprived but lived to face Mary’s further wrath at a later date. Darnley married the other Queen Mary and was killed a year or two later in his own realm. For nearly fifty years from that July day when Edward VI’s eyes closed for the last time, England had no male claimant descended from Henry VII and the throne was disputed solely by Queens Regnant.

Castor concludes by pointing out that Jane, proclaimed Queen by the Privy Council who had served Edward VI, should be reckoned as a real monarch of England, even though she had been illegally proclaimed and then dethroned. In some ways, her turbulent final year taught her cousin Elizabeth a valuable lesson – not to take a husband, especially as the most likely such candidate was her fellow survivor: Lord Guildford Dudley’s younger brother, Robert.

On the right is Paul Delaroche’s highly inaccurate painting of Jane’s end, painted as late as 1834. His version of her execution takes place indoors but we know that she died on Tower Green, as did most beheaded women.

For those of us more focused on the fifteenth century, we will be familiar with the concepts of a king Edward whose death was not announced for several days whilst a faction sought to establish control (1483) and of prisoners being executed to clear the way for a Spanish marriage (1499).

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