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Sir James Tyrrell – Sheriff of Glamorgan

As we said in an earlier article,“ Richard III appointed James Tyrrell Sherriff of Glamorgan and Constable of Cardiff in 1477. The importance of Glamorgan is little understood or recognised in Ricardian Studies, but this was certainly a key job and one of the most important at Richard’s disposal. The practical effect, given that Richard was mainly occupied in the North or at Court,, was that Tyrell was his deputy in one of the greatest, if not the greatest, Marcher Lordships. It was a position of considerable power and almost certainly considerable income.”

Looking for further information about Sir James, I came across “An Inventory of Ancient Monuments of Glamorgan” which said that the Lordship of Glamorgan was passed to Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, through his wife Anne Beauchamp. After Warwick’s death at the Battle of Barnet his daughters inherited it. However, due to a dispute between Richard Duke of Gloucester and George Duke of Clarence, as to how the inheritance should be split, King Edward IV stepped in and enforced partition of the lands and Richard became Lord of Glamorgan. In the Autumn of 1477 Richard appointed Tyrrell as Sheriff of Glamorgan and Constable of Cardiff Castle.

The Richard III Society of Canada reported in an article that during the Scottish Campaign in July 1482 Tyrrell was made a Knight Banneret and in November 1482, along with Sir William Parr and Sir James Harrington he was appointed to exercise as Vice Constable to Richard’s office as Constable of England.

Tyrrell was obviously well thought of by Richard. He trusted him to bring his mother in law from Beaulieu Abbey to Middleham. After Hastings’ execution and the arrest of suspected conspirators Richard temporarily placed Archbishop Rotherham in Sir James’ custody. It is also thought that James Tyrrell was responsible for taking the Princes or one of the Princes out of the country before Bosworth. I have always thought it was odd that he was out of the country when Richard needed him, but it is possible that he was performing a much more important task for Richard.

In researching another previous post , I discovered that Rhys ap Thomas had married Jane Stradling, nee Matthew, the widow of Thomas Stradling of St Donat’s Castle and that he was guardian to the young heir, Edward Stradling when Thomas died in 1480. I assumed that when ap Thomas had married Jane Stradling he had taken over the guardianship of Edward Stradling, however, Richard had given Edward Stradling’s guardianship to James Tyrrell in 1480 when his father died so it was probably after Bosworth that Rhys ap Thomas was given the control of the young heir of St Donat’s. Thomas was later accused of taking money from the Stradling’s estates for three years running. The young man was obviously better served by Tyrrell.

Sir James Tyrrell was obviously someone Richard could trust, so it could be said that was evidence that Richard trusted him to be responsible for taking the Princes out of the country. On the other hand, I am sure that those who believe the traditionalist version would say that it could also mean that Richard could have trusted him to do away with the Princes. Personally I have always thought that the former scenario was probably the true version. In her book “The Mystery of the Princes” Audrey Williamson” reported a tradition in the Tyrrell family that “the Princes were at Gipping with their mother by permission of the uncle”. This was told to her by a descendant of the Tyrrell family in around the 1950s. Apparently the family didn’t ever talk about it because they assumed that if the boys had been at Gipping that it must mean that Sir James was responsible for their deaths. However, they were supposedly at Gipping with their mother and by permission of their uncle, so I doubt that their mother would have been involved with their murder. Gipping in Suffolk is quite near to the east coast of England so would have been an ideal place to stopover on the way to the Continent.

In conclusion, it is my opinion that James Tyrrell was a very loyal, trustworthy member of Richard’s retinue. This is evidenced by the fact that he was trusted by Richard to carry out important tasks like bringing his mother-in-law from Beaulieu to Middleham, to carry out his duties as Lord of Glamorgan by making him Sheriff of Glamorgan and as Vice Constable to Richard’s role as Lord Constable. We might never know if the Princes even died in 1483/84 let alone were murdered or if they were taken out of the country. There isn’t any definite evidence to prove that, if they were taken abroad, Tyrrell was responsible for taking them. However, there is evidence that Richard made a large payment to Tyrrell while he was Captain of Guisnes. It was £3000, a huge amount in those days. There is an opinion that it would have been enough to see a prince live comfortably for quite some time while others say that it was probably towards the running of the garrison. As I said before we might never know what happened but it does seem odd to me that when Richard needed him most to fight the Battle of Bosworth, James Tyrrell was abroad as was Sir Edward Brampton, another person who could have helped to save the day at Bosworth.

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KEY TO THE CASTLE: LUMLEY CASTLE AND ITS OWNERS

Recently it hit the news that the  key to Lumley Castle’s ancient banqueting hall had been returned after it was stolen during an event 40 years ago. Lumley Castle is currently a hotel (so another one to add to the list of interesting castles you can stay in!) and the family who lived there had some interesting connections to various personages  during the Wars of the Roses.

The castle, which stands at Chester-le-Street, not far from Durham, was built in 1389 by Sir Ralph Lumley, replacing an earlier manor house. Unfortunately Ralph got involved in a plot to topple Henry IV and ended up on the block, leaving his widow Eleanor Neville, a daughter of Lord Neville of Raby Castle, in an almost destitute position. The castle was handed over to the Earl of Somerset, although Ralph’s son John was permitted to live in it. In 1421, however, when John died fighting for Henry V in France, the castle was granted back to Ralph’s grandson, John’s son Thomas.

Thomas Lumley was a Yorkist, and was at the seige of Bamburgh castle in 1464, when Warwick blased the walls with cannonfire, making it the first English castle to fall to gunfire.

His son, George,  became an MP and Sheriff of Northumberland. He served Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and was one of his commanders when he took the town of Berwick-on-Tweed back for England. Richard knighted him, along with many other notables, in the Scottish Campaign. He also fought for Richard at Bosworth and survived.

George managed to make the transition to the new regime and accompanied Henry VII on his first progress in the north.  He also once accompanied the Princess Margaret Tudor to Scotland. He seems to have been a feisty sort and slew his own wife’s bastard brother, Giles Thornton, in a duel in a ditch at Windsor Castle.

It is said that George’s son, Thomas, who predeceased his father, married an illegitimate daughter of Edward IV , “Elizabeth”, supposedly the daughter of Elizabeth Wayte, but this is a matter of debate.

THE MISSING KEY:

the lost key of Lumley Castle

 

LUMLEY

 

The Real Treasures of Harewood

Harewood House is known as one of Britain’s treasure houses, but for some of us, the older history of the estate is more interesting than the 17th c stately pile. There is a ruined castle, encroached upon by the wildwood, and a stunning medieval church, All Saints, containing the effigies of members of several important families in the area—the Redmans, the Rythers and the Gascoignes.  All of these tombs are skilfully carved in alabaster and are extremely beautiful; one of the finest collection of late medieval alabaster tombs in the country.

Edward Redman (also spelt Redeman, Redmayne and in several 1700’s sources Reedman), lies beside his wife Elizabeth Huddlestone  with a peaceful smile on his carven face; his effigy is said to be one of the first to bear a true likeness to its owner.  Redman was a supporter of Richard III and is said to have fought for him at Bosworth. He was a lawyer and Esquire of the Body to the King by 1484.  He was made sheriff of Dorset and Devon, and served on commissions to arrest and imprison Buckingham’s rebels in the west in late 1483. Richard granted him lands in Somerset and Wiltshire in 1484.

After Bosworth, Edward Redman kept a low profile but his collar with Tudor roses and ‘esses’ shows that he eventually became reconciled to Henry Tudor’s reign, although it  seems he lived quietly and never held high office again.

Edward’s elder brother was William Redman, who also served Richard when he was Duke of Gloucester.  William assisted the Duke in removing the troublesome fishgarths from various rivers, and he was made a Knight Banneret by Richard in 1482,  while on the Scottish Campaign. Unfortunately, he seems to have died suddenly later that year and is buried at Heversham.

On the opposite side of All Saints church lies William Gascoigne (there are actually 3 William Gascoignes buried in All Saints, this William being the youngest of the three. His wife  was Margaret Percy, the daughter of the 3rd earl of Northumberland. He lived in Gawthorpe Hall, now just a series of large earthworks on the edge of the Harewood estate. He served the 4th earl for a while but later served the Duke of Gloucester in Scotland in 1482, and when Richard became King,  Gascoigne was made a Knight of the Body. He also fought at Bosworth but survived, though he died just two years later.

William’s daughter Agnes (also known in some sources as Anne) married Thomas  Fairfax and had twin boys, whose descendants are rather notable today—Nicholas is an ancestor of Prince William (though his mother, Princess Diana) and William is an ancestor of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

If visiting All Saints Church, there is no need to pay to get on to the Harewood Estate. Park in Harewood village at the community hall and walk up the bridleway; the church will be found on the left after a short walk. The earthworks of Gawthorpe Hall are in the field on the right; pass over the cattle grid and you will see them on the horizon. Returning to the village hall, have a rest if you need one, then, if you wish, set out to find Harewood Castle’s haunting ruins. Go behind the community hall, walk past the picnic tables and go between 4 wooden posts. It looks like you are entering someone’s back garden but is a right of way. After a few minutes, you’ll come onto a paved cul-de-sac with houses; look left and you’ll see a green sign saying public footpath. Follow it into the woods. You should see a tunnel; go through it and you are on a direct route to Harewood Castle, founded by Sir William Aldeburgh in 1366. (Aldeburgh only had two daughters who married into the Ryther and Redman families.)

Below: Edward Redman and wife Elizabeth Huddlestone

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Below: William Gascoigne and wife Margaret Percy

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Below: Harewood Castle

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