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A contemporary of the House of York

James III of Scotland’s reign overlaps the whole of Yorkist rule in England, succeeding on 3rd August 1460, more than seven months before Edward IV’s first coronation, to 11th June 1488. almost three years after Richard III’s death at Bosworth and including Henry VI’s re-adeption. His uninterrupted reign spanned the decisive battles of Mortimer’s Cross and Stoke Field and was to end at the hands of his own countrymen, led by his eldest son, but it could have terminated six years earlier and the future Richard III would have been at or near the scene. He became King of Scotland in his minority, as did his successor, reigned in an era when the later “British Isles” consisted of only two nations (following Alexander III’s victory at Largs in 1263) and was killed a mere four miles from a Scottish triumph at Bannockburn.

James III’s reign began as his father was blown apart at Roxburgh by an exploding cannon and he was crowned at Kelso a week later. By most accounts, although Norman MacDougall disagrees, he was almost nine at the time. His mother was Regent for three years, during which Roxburgh Castle was dismantled and Berwick reconquered, before she too died prematurely, to be succeeded by the Kennedy brothers and then Lord Boyd. James’ 1469 marriage to Margarethe of Denmark was arranged by the Boyds, bringing the Orkneys and Shetland Islands to the Scottish realm and ending payment to Norway. James attained his majority and the Boyd influence continued, although some of their number were executed.

James established good relations with England and contracted his eldest son, James Duke of Rothesay, to Edward IV’s second daughter Cecilia. At the same time, he moved against the (MacDonald) Lord of the Isles and fell out with both his brothers – the Duke of Albany and the Earl of Mar. Mar died in suspicious circumstances and Albany left for France.

Edward IV then launched an invasion under the Duke of Gloucester, accompanied by Lord Howard and Albany. Berwick fell and has been part of England ever since. James sought to resist but was arrested at Lauder Bridge, near Thirlstane Castle, by some Scottish rebels, who hanged some of James’ favourites there and imprisoned him at Edinburgh Castle. The English army had made their point and left for home, taking Albany back into exile, eventually to France, where he died in a duel in August 1485. His son was later regent for James V and fought at Pavia.

James III had re-established his authority by that year, as Richard III and Norfolk died in battle that very month. James executed another Albany supporter, but the end was in sight as Margarethe died in 1486. By spring 1488, his sons were fifteen, twelve and eight. Another revolt evolved and this time the Duke of Rothesay was involved. A battle took place to the west of Stirling and James was either killed during the conflict or in flight. Rothesay succeeded him but this Stewart minority was to be mercifully short.

The Inspirational Borders and Lothians

via The Inspirational Borders and Lothians

The historic Townleys of Burnley, Lancashire….

I have to confess that I had never heard of the Towneleys of Lancashire, so I came as some surprise to see them described as one of the most notable families in that county. I do have an interest in a particular Lancashire family, the Holands of Upholland.

There is a connection with Richard III, in that one of the Towneleys took part in “the Scottish campaigns led by Richard Duke of Gloucester, soon to be Richard III, following the end of the second period of the Wars of the Roses”. This member of the family died of wounds sustained at Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482. Afterwards they seem to have been well in with the Tudors.

Anyway, the Towneleys are definitely interesting, and were around for a long time, certainly throughout the medieval period. To read about them, please go here.

History Book Part One

The Legendary Ten Seconds have a new album out. The tracks go back chronologically to Arthurian times, before including two about the Battle of Hastings – or of Battle to be precise. The last six cover Richard III’s adult life and reign, from the seemingly effortless taking of Edinburgh to the Harrington dispute and the subsequent Stanley treachery at Bosworth.

Here is a recording of their performance at Coldridge, with reference to the stained glass window there.

Sir James Tyrrell – Sheriff of Glamorgan

As we said in an earlier article,“ Richard III appointed James Tyrrell Sherriff of Glamorgan and Constable of Cardiff in 1477. The importance of Glamorgan is little understood or recognised in Ricardian Studies, but this was certainly a key job and one of the most important at Richard’s disposal. The practical effect, given that Richard was mainly occupied in the North or at Court,, was that Tyrell was his deputy in one of the greatest, if not the greatest, Marcher Lordships. It was a position of considerable power and almost certainly considerable income.”

Looking for further information about Sir James, I came across “An Inventory of Ancient Monuments of Glamorgan” which said that the Lordship of Glamorgan was passed to Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, through his wife Anne Beauchamp. After Warwick’s death at the Battle of Barnet his daughters inherited it. However, due to a dispute between Richard Duke of Gloucester and George Duke of Clarence, as to how the inheritance should be split, King Edward IV stepped in and enforced partition of the lands and Richard became Lord of Glamorgan. In the Autumn of 1477 Richard appointed Tyrrell as Sheriff of Glamorgan and Constable of Cardiff Castle.

The Richard III Society of Canada reported in an article that during the Scottish Campaign in July 1482 Tyrrell was made a Knight Banneret and in November 1482, along with Sir William Parr and Sir James Harrington he was appointed to exercise as Vice Constable to Richard’s office as Constable of England.

Tyrrell was obviously well thought of by Richard. He trusted him to bring his mother in law from Beaulieu Abbey to Middleham. After Hastings’ execution and the arrest of suspected conspirators Richard temporarily placed Archbishop Rotherham in Sir James’ custody. It is also thought that James Tyrrell was responsible for taking the Princes or one of the Princes out of the country before Bosworth. I have always thought it was odd that he was out of the country when Richard needed him, but it is possible that he was performing a much more important task for Richard.

In researching another previous post , I discovered that Rhys ap Thomas had married Jane Stradling, nee Matthew, the widow of Thomas Stradling of St Donat’s Castle and that he was guardian to the young heir, Edward Stradling when Thomas died in 1480. I assumed that when ap Thomas had married Jane Stradling he had taken over the guardianship of Edward Stradling, however, Richard had given Edward Stradling’s guardianship to James Tyrrell in 1480 when his father died so it was probably after Bosworth that Rhys ap Thomas was given the control of the young heir of St Donat’s. Thomas was later accused of taking money from the Stradling’s estates for three years running. The young man was obviously better served by Tyrrell.

Sir James Tyrrell was obviously someone Richard could trust, so it could be said that was evidence that Richard trusted him to be responsible for taking the Princes out of the country. On the other hand, I am sure that those who believe the traditionalist version would say that it could also mean that Richard could have trusted him to do away with the Princes. Personally I have always thought that the former scenario was probably the true version. In her book “The Mystery of the Princes” Audrey Williamson” reported a tradition in the Tyrrell family that “the Princes were at Gipping with their mother by permission of the uncle”. This was told to her by a descendant of the Tyrrell family in around the 1950s. Apparently the family didn’t ever talk about it because they assumed that if the boys had been at Gipping that it must mean that Sir James was responsible for their deaths. However, they were supposedly at Gipping with their mother and by permission of their uncle, so I doubt that their mother would have been involved with their murder. Gipping in Suffolk is quite near to the east coast of England so would have been an ideal place to stopover on the way to the Continent.

In conclusion, it is my opinion that James Tyrrell was a very loyal, trustworthy member of Richard’s retinue. This is evidenced by the fact that he was trusted by Richard to carry out important tasks like bringing his mother-in-law from Beaulieu to Middleham, to carry out his duties as Lord of Glamorgan by making him Sheriff of Glamorgan and as Vice Constable to Richard’s role as Lord Constable. We might never know if the Princes even died in 1483/84 let alone were murdered or if they were taken out of the country. There isn’t any definite evidence to prove that, if they were taken abroad, Tyrrell was responsible for taking them. However, there is evidence that Richard made a large payment to Tyrrell while he was Captain of Guisnes. It was £3000, a huge amount in those days. There is an opinion that it would have been enough to see a prince live comfortably for quite some time while others say that it was probably towards the running of the garrison. As I said before we might never know what happened but it does seem odd to me that when Richard needed him most to fight the Battle of Bosworth, James Tyrrell was abroad as was Sir Edward Brampton, another person who could have helped to save the day at Bosworth.

KEY TO THE CASTLE: LUMLEY CASTLE AND ITS OWNERS

Recently it hit the news that the  key to Lumley Castle’s ancient banqueting hall had been returned after it was stolen during an event 40 years ago. Lumley Castle is currently a hotel (so another one to add to the list of interesting castles you can stay in!) and the family who lived there had some interesting connections to various personages  during the Wars of the Roses.

The castle, which stands at Chester-le-Street, not far from Durham, was built in 1389 by Sir Ralph Lumley, replacing an earlier manor house. Unfortunately Ralph got involved in a plot to topple Henry IV and ended up on the block, leaving his widow Eleanor Neville, a daughter of Lord Neville of Raby Castle, in an almost destitute position. The castle was handed over to the Earl of Somerset, although Ralph’s son John was permitted to live in it. In 1421, however, when John died fighting for Henry V in France, the castle was granted back to Ralph’s grandson, John’s son Thomas.

Thomas Lumley was a Yorkist, and was at the seige of Bamburgh castle in 1464, when Warwick blased the walls with cannonfire, making it the first English castle to fall to gunfire.

His son, George,  became an MP and Sheriff of Northumberland. He served Richard, Duke of Gloucester, and was one of his commanders when he took the town of Berwick-on-Tweed back for England. Richard knighted him, along with many other notables, in the Scottish Campaign. He also fought for Richard at Bosworth and survived.

George managed to make the transition to the new regime and accompanied Henry VII on his first progress in the north.  He also once accompanied the Princess Margaret Tudor to Scotland. He seems to have been a feisty sort and slew his own wife’s bastard brother, Giles Thornton, in a duel in a ditch at Windsor Castle.

It is said that George’s son, Thomas, who predeceased his father, married an illegitimate daughter of Edward IV , “Elizabeth”, supposedly the daughter of Elizabeth Wayte, but this is a matter of debate.

THE MISSING KEY:

the lost key of Lumley Castle

 

LUMLEY

 

The Real Treasures of Harewood

Harewood House is known as one of Britain’s treasure houses, but for some of us, the older history of the estate is more interesting than the 17th c stately pile. There is a ruined castle, encroached upon by the wildwood, and a stunning medieval church, All Saints, containing the effigies of members of several important families in the area—the Redmans, the Rythers and the Gascoignes.  All of these tombs are skilfully carved in alabaster and are extremely beautiful; one of the finest collection of late medieval alabaster tombs in the country.

Edward Redman (also spelt Redeman, Redmayne and in several 1700’s sources Reedman), lies beside his wife Elizabeth Huddlestone  with a peaceful smile on his carven face; his effigy is said to be one of the first to bear a true likeness to its owner.  Redman was a supporter of Richard III and is said to have fought for him at Bosworth. He was a lawyer and Esquire of the Body to the King by 1484.  He was made sheriff of Dorset and Devon, and served on commissions to arrest and imprison Buckingham’s rebels in the west in late 1483. Richard granted him lands in Somerset and Wiltshire in 1484.

After Bosworth, Edward Redman kept a low profile but his collar with Tudor roses and ‘esses’ shows that he eventually became reconciled to Henry Tudor’s reign, although it  seems he lived quietly and never held high office again.

Edward’s elder brother was William Redman, who also served Richard when he was Duke of Gloucester.  William assisted the Duke in removing the troublesome fishgarths from various rivers, and he was made a Knight Banneret by Richard in 1482,  while on the Scottish Campaign. Unfortunately, he seems to have died suddenly later that year and is buried at Heversham.

On the opposite side of All Saints church lies William Gascoigne (there are actually 3 William Gascoignes buried in All Saints, this William being the youngest of the three. His wife  was Margaret Percy, the daughter of the 3rd earl of Northumberland. He lived in Gawthorpe Hall, now just a series of large earthworks on the edge of the Harewood estate. He served the 4th earl for a while but later served the Duke of Gloucester in Scotland in 1482, and when Richard became King,  Gascoigne was made a Knight of the Body. He also fought at Bosworth but survived, though he died just two years later.

William’s daughter Agnes (also known in some sources as Anne) married Thomas  Fairfax and had twin boys, whose descendants are rather notable today—Nicholas is an ancestor of Prince William (though his mother, Princess Diana) and William is an ancestor of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

If visiting All Saints Church, there is no need to pay to get on to the Harewood Estate. Park in Harewood village at the community hall and walk up the bridleway; the church will be found on the left after a short walk. The earthworks of Gawthorpe Hall are in the field on the right; pass over the cattle grid and you will see them on the horizon. Returning to the village hall, have a rest if you need one, then, if you wish, set out to find Harewood Castle’s haunting ruins. Go behind the community hall, walk past the picnic tables and go between 4 wooden posts. It looks like you are entering someone’s back garden but is a right of way. After a few minutes, you’ll come onto a paved cul-de-sac with houses; look left and you’ll see a green sign saying public footpath. Follow it into the woods. You should see a tunnel; go through it and you are on a direct route to Harewood Castle, founded by Sir William Aldeburgh in 1366. (Aldeburgh only had two daughters who married into the Ryther and Redman families.)

Below: Edward Redman and wife Elizabeth Huddlestone

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Below: William Gascoigne and wife Margaret Percy

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Below: Harewood Castle

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