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The contemporaries of Henry VIII

Genealogy

HenryVIII220px-Francis1-1 ivan the terrible

Francois I of France died in the first quarter of 1547, after a reign of over thirty years, leaving only one legitimate son, Henri II. Whilst thought of as a cultured monarch, a patron of the arts and a linguistic reformer, he took an ambiguous approach to religious reform, (in which his sister Marguerite de Navarre took an interest). He organised several heresy executions (at the Place Maubert in 1523, in Paris in 1540 and at Merindol in 1545). The male line of the House of Valois became extinct in 1589, after his three grandsons had reigned.

Ivan IV of Russia was born in 1530 and is thus more a contemporary of Henry’s children. He succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Moscow in infancy and was made the first Tsar in January 1547, weeks before Henry VIII’s death and months before Francois I’s. He is also recorded as a patron of the arts but was increasingly mentally afflicted as his life progressed and was thus responsible for many deaths, including that of his elder son. Ivan, thereby known as “the Terrible”, is thought to have contracted seven marriages although he annulled three as the Russian Orthodox Church had a lifetime limit of four spouses. Like Henry and Francois, he died in his fifties and was succeeded by his son, Feodor I. In fact Ivan left two sons but Feodor was predeceased both by his daughter and his half-brother, ending the Rurik dynasty proper in 1598.

Although Henry VIII and Francois I were both descended from Charles V (and may have shared a mistress (Mary Boleyn), Ivan IV was not as closely related to either.

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On Harold II and others

I would recommend Mercedes Rochelle’s post here http://mercedesrochelle.com/wordpress/?p=719 : a discussion of Harold II’s possible remains.

Just to emphasise a few points:
1) “forensic evidence in the 1950s was not exacting” – it wasn’t in the 1930s either, as we know.
2) Richard III is unquestionably the template for such cases. First, find your location. Then find a mtDNA or Y-chromosome comparator, preferably one who is still alive (but a mixed line will not do). Then find permission to dig and compare the DNA sample. Consider the height, age, approximate year of death, dietary evidence and wounds.
3) Harold was Richard III’s ancestor, via Russia and France. Both were experienced and successful commanders who had reigned for a short time having been chosen (by the Witangemot or Parliament) after a longer reign by an Edward who had reclaimed the Crown. Harold had won battles in Wales in 1064 just as Richard’s 1482 campaign in Scotland was a success. Both were defeated by French invasions led by challengers with no valid claim.

The best of luck to anyone identifying Harold II, or Alfred, particularly with the DNA comparison.

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