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The lost brass of Thomas of Woodstock’s tomb in Westminster Abbey….

While searching for what could be accurate likenesses of a number of lords, I came upon the above illustration, which I had never seen before. It is not helpful for actual likenesses of the folk concerned, but is interesting for all that. It is an engraving of the brass that once marked the tomb of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. He was the youngest uncle of Richard II, and came to a nasty end in Calais in 1397. Mostly likely at the behest of his royal nephew.

What a shame that such things as this brass are lost to our modern time. It seems that vandals and the like are not a product of just the 20th-21st centuries.

To read more, go here.

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When is a tilde not a tilde…?

 

How clever are you when it comes to the precise use of English, grammar, punctuation and so on? My query here is about the use of a tilde, that is a ~, on top of an “h” in the confession of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, on the eve of his grisly death, 8th September 1397.

I cannot imagine its significance in this instance, because I know that a ~ generally means “approximately” or similar, and that in this example, “knowlech” means “knoweth”, means “know”. So, why the tilde?

This puzzle (to me, at least) was found in the book Fourteenth Century Studies, by M.V. Clarke. In particular, the chapter dealing with ‘The Deposition of Richard II’. The snippet below was taken from a pdf version online.

 

If anyone can help me with this, I’ll be grateful.

The Rise of the Clans

Neil Oliver‘s

latest history series has been shown through December on Monday evenings (BBC1 Scotland) and twenty-four hours later on BBC4.

The first part, of three, showed how the power vacuum caused by the sudden deaths of Alexander III and his granddaughter was resolved through the clan system and John Balliol’s abdication so that alliances were formed behind the remaining claimants Robert Bruce and John “Red” Comyn, culminating in a brawl in the Dumfries Greyfriars, during which Comyn was fatally stabbed. Robert I’s reign, including his strategic triumph as he unexpectedly arranged a pitched battle at Bannockburn is also explored.

The second part explores how, after the reign of David II, Robert I’s son, Clan Stewart evolved from a branch of the (Norman) Fitzalans, who are now Dukes of Norfolk through their Howard marriage, to supply every Scottish monarch from 1371 and every English monarch from 1603, now through the Bohemian marriage of James VI and I’s daughter. The reigns of the first three Stewarts were narrated, the weaknesses of Robert II and Robert III, the absence and the authoritarian – Lancastrian? – royal style of James I together with the conflict between Robert III‘s sons were used to show how James’ assassination and the ensuing executions, organised by his widow Joan “Beaufort”, resolved this before the end of 1437. Gradually, from James I’s time, the Stewarts succeeded in gaining power from the MacDonalds, who held the Lordship of the Isles.

Finally, we focus on Mary, simultaneously the last Stewart and the first Stuart, through her marriage to Henry, Lord Darnley (of the Lennox Stuarts), and his mysterious death at Kirk o’Fields, up to her dethronement and exile. The clan chieftains played a significant part in her initial downfall, as they plotted to reverse Knox’s organic Reformation that had taken place during her absence. At this time, her half-brother the Earl of Moray allied himself to the Earl of Morton, the leading Douglas. Then, after marrying the (Hepburn) Earl of Bothwell, Mary fled south – and her life ended at Fotheringhay where Richard III’s had begun.

As usual, this evocative series features realistic dramatisations in which Oliver appears almost as a witness in some scenes. The detail exceeds that of his A History of Scotland and, as usual, nobody featured in the episodes is beyond reproach.

Now a lost north-of-the-border king….

james-i-of-scotland

Well, we had Richard III, then they sought Henry I…and now it’s James I of Scotland. I wonder how many others will soon be on the list?

According to this article :

“A plan to search for the tomb of a Scottish king buried in Perth nearly 600 years ago has been unveiled.

“It will be part of a project to create a major visitor attraction in the city using virtual reality to tell the story of James I and the Stewart monarchs.

“James I was assassinated in Perth in 1437 and later buried at the Charterhouse monastery.

“But the priory was destroyed in the reformation 100 years later and no-one is sure of the grave’s exact location.

“The monastery where he was buried was built on his orders and was part of his great plans for Perth.

“Historians believe he wanted to create a complex on the scale of Westminster and move St Andrews University to the city to compete with Oxford.

“Dr Lucy Dean, from the University of the Highlands and Islands, told BBC Scotland: “Thirteen out of 18 of James’ parliaments take place in Perth. He is centralising his government here.

“I’m not sure whether Perth would have been the capital but it was definitely in the running for being the capital. [His] murder halted that idea in its tracks.”

“James I was assassinated on 4 February 1437 while he was in the royal apartments at the Blackfriars monastery in Perth.

“After a group of 30 conspirators were let into the building he tried to hide in a sewer, but he was trapped and killed by Sir Robert Graham.

“A pub and sheltered housing accommodation now stands on the site of his death.

“The area where he died is marked with a stone monument.

“Archaeologist David Bowler, who explored the site in the 1980s, said he was “very excited” by the plans to find the king’s tomb.

” ‘It’s something we’ve all been thinking about in Perth for many, many years,’ he said.

” ‘We’ve all known about the Carthusian friary and we want to know a bit more about where it is.’

“Leaders of this project, which also includes a “virtual museum” depicting Medieval Perth, hope the city could benefit from the discovery of the tomb in the same way Leicester did when Richard III’s remains were found.

“Richard Oram, professor of Medieval history at the University of Stirling, said: ‘If we were to actually locate where the royal tomb was within this complex – we saw what that did to Leicester with the rediscovery of Richard III.

” ‘A lot more people know Richard III than James I but we’re looking to try and change that. So if we were successful that would be a huge added bonus to the project.’ ”

There is more to be read here.

Those accident-prone Stewarts

bloody-coronation-1024x683As this excellent article reminds us, there were eight pre-union Stewart monarchs, or nine if you exclude James VI, who had already reigned in Scotland for nearly forty years before inheriting the English throne. Of these, excepting the two Roberts, only two turned up for a pitched battle with against an English army and only one was actually killed by English troops and the other by accident. A third delegated his fighting duties, although he was quite ill and died within three weeks. Two of them managed to be killed by fellow Scots and another lived in exile in England for twenty years before being beheaded for frequent plotting.

The strangest thing is that, throughout this period, the Scots throne always passed that monarch’s heir, whether six days old or fifteen and no matter in what circumstances they died. One of them, James I, married Richard III’s apparent cousin, James IV married his great-niece and Mary died at his birthplace.

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